Loaded with Lengthy War ELSs
Deriving the Odds Against the War ELSs in Ezekiel 40 Having as Many (or More) Extensions as Is the Case (One in Six Followed by 139 Zeroes)
The War ELSs in Ezekiel 40 have a total of 45 extensions around them. By chance, we would expect an average of 8.5 extensions in good Hebrew around these ELSs. One does not need to be a mathematician to know that chance cannot be the explanation for the presence of this many more extensions beyond what is expected. Therefore, we should conclude that Ezekiel 40 is encoded.
The following documents the counting of all of the extensions found by Moshe Shak in his review of these ELSs for extensions. What is truly astonishing is the appropriateness of the terms in these extensions to the topic of war. This has not been factored into the probability of occurrence. If it had been, the odds would be far more remote.
Among the ten terms with extensions, two have two extensions, two have three extensions, two have four, five have three and one has six extensions. In the scientific paper Non-Random Equidistant Letter Sequence Extensions in Ezekiel, a method is presented for estimating the number of terms that will have each possible number of extensions. Using that method, and an assumed probability of 20% of finding an extension in good Hebrew for every opportunity of finding an extension, we have the comparison presented in the next table.
What we would expect by chance would be that 4.35 of the terms would have one extension, 1.31 would have two extensions, and 0.35 would have three extensions. These expected values are shown in the table above, where they are compared with the actual number of terms that have each given number of extensions. Taken all together, we would expect that 0.11 terms would have four or more extensions. In contrast, six terms actually have four or more extensions.
To obtain the probability of chance occurrence, the chi square probability is computed using standard statistical procedures. The odds of chance occurrence are one in six followed by 139 zeroes. In other words, there is no way that chance can be seen as a rational explanation of the length and number of extensions to the War ELSs in Ezekiel 40. The proper conclusion is that this text is encoded.
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